Lead: "rule" refers to a certain standard, rule or custom. Now commonly used for compound words such as "behave", "behaved" and so on. But the words involved in the "rules" and "moments" in ancient times was two measurement tools, "regulation" is used to draw a circle, the "distance" is used to draw a square.
Jiang: In our daily discourse, the rules now use a lot, for example, we say that children do not follow the rules, that we come to a place, we must not broken the rules of others, or southerners, for example, for children punishment, said to him I was doing the rules and let him know how to comply with some guidelines.
Dai: idioms, many of which contain the rules, law-abiding, behave, Guixingjubu, regulation-day moment to. Inside the rules of this idiom, we are now the rule to use as a compound word, meaning a bit like a ritual testimonies, in fact, in ancient times, rules and moment are two objects, which is two tools. They used to do? Can be used to draw can also be used to measure. Speaking of regulation and the moment, the origin is very interesting.
In ancient times, the function of regulation is similar to the present compass, is used to draw a circle of. The moment function is equivalent to the current right-angle right-angle plate. In nature, the circle is a beautiful thing, everywhere we can enjoy the beauty of round. When a drop of water into the water, and many of them have fought to extend a round off, one after another, ring ring phase, which is quite soft. So people have special feelings for a round, but if you do not have tools, like a perfect reproduction of the circle, I am afraid that is a difficult task was. Therefore, the "Compass" has become one mapping, the essential one tool. And the circle corresponding to the vertical world. In nature, there are a variety of angles. However, in our lives is most commonly seen at right angles. Careful observation is not difficult to find the right angle formed by the biggest feature of the object is to group them together, you can achieve perfect results. But with a round of different, although It has long been used at right angles, but it is difficult to find right angles in nature.
Jiang: nature is difficult to show you the right angle. So I think the first time, you will not think of moments.
Day: But moments in the ancient is needed, such as we build a house, first erected a pillar, the pillar should cover the roof, the pillars to be parallel to the vertical columns and the ground.
Jiang: We can speculate that in order to draw a circle, people come up with some way to, for example, so get hold of a rope looped the middle class.
Dai: This method is now also among the primary school teaching.
Jiang: math teacher on the blackboard still so dry sometimes that I think the ancients are easy to do, but you can imagine how the ancients made the first moment come? For example, Let us build you a moment, not allowed to use modern measurement tools, you tell us how you can make.
Dai: I can use the plumb line, for example, I use a rope hanging a stone, I can certainly know that it is vertical.
River: You do plumb line, you should determine the level, I believe that the ancients learned to get to the level, but also took a long time, and now we can see some ancient instrument for a base open ring groove, which ring is used to measure the level of slots, this instrument means that I installed in the slot after the irrigation, if it is in the horizontal plane, then the slot is surrounded by water just Yandao flush this with us today , now the middle of a water level meter bubble, air bubbles of the same nature. But then the ancient times, for example, in the legend of a time when the ancients had a house built, and has been used at right angles, and that we conceive how he would be at right angles, we get the level of even the things that you do not have evidence, you use the lead vertical, horizontal and then vertical lines come with you to get the right angle. How in fact made the first out of the moment, and now no one can give us answers, I think the audience which anyone who is interested, you can also think about what measures you can answer.
Dai: You are very interesting and may wish to think about the kind of conditions in ancient times, there is no tool, no testimonies, how do I determine the moment of the first ruler of the testimonies. The first ruler to create the moment, from a historical point of view, it also has a history of its scientific significance.
Jiang: I think this is technically very important, we see the ancient paintings, Fu Xi and his hand holding a moment.
Dai: generally interpreted as the image is a myth.
Jiang: Why should it be held in the hand, this is a very difficult thing to do it is a very magical thing.
This is the picture from the Western Han Dynasty bricks down on the extension of the image, known as the rule graph, holding hands in the moment of Fu Xi, and Nu Wa are hand-holding rules, the so-called rules, functions similar to the current compass, the shape is similar to Liang regulations. Liang regulation is now drawing people to the general rules is not easy to draw a circle two feet prepared tools. It is when people speculate regulatory tool designed to draw a circle. The so-called moments, both from a functional point of view or shape wood with the now commonly used rectangular device are not much changed. In our history, flood control, the story circulated widely. "Historical Records" record, Yu "yardstick left and right rules", led by the public governance of the Yellow River floods, the use of measurement tools will be mentioned in the rules and moment. Thus was the importance of rules in Surveying and Mapping.
Day: But on the other hand said, is not it also has testimonies mean?
Jiang: Yes, of course, after making out is the testimonies, and use this stuff to provide testimonies to the world, because the moment you just have the first, followed by the moment to be copied,
Dai: In fact, this regulation if the inquiry is also a little article up, because we are using the rules are compasses, say I'm in a mid-point, I fixed a foot, I can be rotated around the feet of a circle. Such a compass that is passed over from the West, and the regulation began in ancient China not compasses. For example, we look at the images according to Fu Xi, and some experts say, under this image point of view, when the regulation is an strips of wood stuck in the wooden ends of two similar things like nails , for example, I fixed one end I can do the following to draw a circle.
River: This is easy. For example, we see that those early civilizations unearthed jade bi is very neat inside the circle.
Dai: You said the jade, if earlier, then the jade as the Liangzhu cultural sites dating back five thousand years, I would say that there may be rules when it?
Jiang: I believe there, because the bi ah, you see, not only inside the holes are very round, very round shape, it certainly has a tool draw a circle.
Day: Or, after doing it, I want to measure it, I will use this regulation.
Bi is a flat central circular perforated jade. As to the use of Bi, As everyone is different, some think it is a ritual worship of heaven and earth, and some think it is an ornament, but also because a large number of Bi is in many ancient tombs unearthed, so Others think it is buried. But whether it is plain Neolithic jade, or after the production of refined Spring and Autumn, and with a variety of tattoo Bi, Bi probably the deepest impression left us is that it was neat and eye-catching round.
Jiang: but more mysterious is that Cong is the outside, square, which is round, the highest 49 cm to do the kind of jade. The Cong out of it is square, which is round, measuring inside the circle have enough tools to outside parties as we now see is also very neat.
Day: Jade you said about its use, and now has been controversial in the academic community, some people say that with some exceedingly (concepts).
Jiang: Well ritual.
Day: Can not say that because this thing is very difficult to make, because it is difficult to produce in the processing technology.
Jiang: certainly the case, are difficult to control the production of Renhe Li.
Dai: Yes, again out of this particular shape of the system, we say "hemispherical dome", or can show that, assuming that the tribe owns the artifacts, it has a certain sacredness?
Jiang: Since early civilization, you have some knowledge that others do not, is a boast about, people will respect you is because you can even say that these things are heaven-sent, or a divine and often is the dream of doing what the West is what God told him how how and always claim to be psychic, she said, more than I can generally keep up with the day or to communicate with my God, this is also the same in the East, This is done by the Witch who, Witchcraft is the ability to keep up with the days of communication, just like Chang (the famous scholar) said, intelligence is in heaven, so you can keep up with the days of communication, it means you have access to wisdom. So as these special objects, that is processing a call you today, "Cong" is not easy, not to mention that time without any modern machinery, so he can do, when, certainly worth toasting. So this circle Ye Hao, be able to give a right angle Ye Hao, in ancient times is a lot of knowledge.
Cong first appeared in ancient China, another major jade, usually foreign inner circle. Let us not to fine its use, through the exquisite jade, the ancients also had to square the circle here perfect combination to together. Square and round we can see that at the time the position of people's minds. In addition, in many artifacts, we also can see the shadow of regulatory and moments, such as the pottery of these devices with sleek vertical pattern, a large number of bronze mirrors behind the lines drawn by the rules and so on.
Day: Can you talk about the rules as the idiom, the first source?
River: common is "Mencius", said, "the workers lose the clever, Lou Zhi-Ming, not to the rules, not as a radius," meaning that this person no matter how smart those people are able to superb people, Without this tool, however, he is unable to complete his radius of.
Dai: That these two objects have very early application of it in China very long time, because the application of such a long time, and so universal, and thus also affect the expression of culture in the words of them. That the meaning of a word derived from the original meaning, we are now more that the rules, behave themselves and forget, sometimes overlooked in its original sense.
Jiang: The tech behind the still very few.
Day: Of course we are here today said that the two words, we might look back in ancient technology. Even at the moment because the regulatory front, sometimes also with the rules instead of only moments, but also express the idea.
Jiang: I think there are things you want to refine it, or some truth intentionally, for example, why do not we say that moments of regulation, but the rules, of course we can speculate, as we said earlier, the regulations readily available, relatively rare moments that, so people certainly first obtain the rules, then so it is naturally to regulate the arrangement in front moments later we can be omitted, as the rules of discipline when it is told, we said there school rules.
Dai: Yes, there are family rules.
Jiang: that you breach the.
Dai: regulations, traffic laws, this is something we are very familiar.
Jiang: for example, saying that you should do out of this circle, and the circle of that is illegal, and this is very vivid, because regulation is used to draw a circle.
Dai: I think so. The two words, especially the rules, it seems very viable in the cultures that were of Chinese culture a very unique content.
Jiang: I think so.